Gears, bearings, and similar mechanical elements transmit loads through the surfaces that are in contact with one another. Thus, the fatigue lives of gears can be improved by providing smoother tooth surfaces. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, we completed a metrology evaluation of one method for making gears with a highly polished, mirrorlike surface. The polished gears were measured carefully. The measurement data showed that the polishing process did, indeed, reduce the surface roughness but did not change the overall tooth shape in any harmful way. This work was done as a partnership of NASA, the U.S. Army, and the University of Wales. NASA provided conventionally ground gear specimens and has begun testing to determine the fatigue lives of the superfinished gears. Under contract, the University of Wales superfinished the gears and inspected them before and after the superfinishing operation. The U.S. Army European Research Office provided the funds and procured the contract with the University of Wales.